Friday, December 28, 2007


An industry is generally any grouping of businesses that share a common method of generating profits, such as the music industry, the automobile industry, or the cattle industry. It is also used specifically to refer to an area of economic production focused on manufacturing which involves large amounts of capital investment before any profit can be realized, also called "heavy industry.As-of 2004, Financial services is the largest industry or category of industries in the world in terms of earnings.

Industry in the second sense became a key sector of production in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, which upset previous mercantile and feudal economies through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the development of steam engines, power looms, and advances in large scale steel and coal production. Industrial countries then assumed a capitalist economic policy. Railroads and steam-powered ships began speedily integrating previously impossibly-distant world markets, enabling private companies to develop to then-unheard of size and wealth. Manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy. Other sectors such as the service sector tend to be wealth consuming sectors. Following the Industrial Revolution, perhaps a third of the world's economic output is derived from manufacturing industries—more than agriculture's share.

Monday, December 17, 2007

Financial market

In economics, a financial market is a mechanism that allows people to simply buy and sell (trade) financial securities (such as stocks and bonds), commodities (such as valuable metals or agricultural goods), and other fungible items of value at low transaction costs and at prices that imitate the proficient market suggestion.

Financial markets have evolved significantly over several hundred years and are undergoing constant modernization to improve liquidity.

Both general markets (where many commodities are traded) and specialized markets (where only one commodity is traded) survive. Markets work by placing many interested sellers in one "place", thus making them easier to locate for potential buyers. An economy which relies primarily on connections between buyers and sellers to allocate resources is known as a market economy in contrast either to a command economy or to a non-market economy that is based, such as a gift economy.

Sunday, December 02, 2007

Automobiles in Society

This paper is a revise of the impact of the growing of automobiles on the global environment, people’s lives and health, and the formation of Western culture. In addition to survey the impact of automobiles, technologies that have been developed to cope with the problems will be examine, as well as potential long-term solution to the community and ecological troubles caused by automobiles.
While the ecological collision of automobiles on society may be supposed in more material terms, the size of its social impact is more theoretical in its definition. Mark Delucchi suggests that the total social cost of automobile use is the welfare dissimilarity between the current motor vehicle system and a system which provides exactly the same services but without time, manpower, materials, or energy - in short without cost. This explanation of the social cost of automobiles alludes to several general categories of impact, such as personal non-monetary costs, bundled private sector costs, government costs, and various externalities.

Tuesday, November 13, 2007

A simple Girl

Around and around it soared in brutal circles, tearing from side to side her animated temples. At a standstill, they did not do anything. Still, they simply laid there with faces of chalk, invalid of all human emotions. She could not look at them in hopes of relieve, for long. The cherry rivers that flowed across her eyes, streamed down her steaming cheeks, made vision impossible.
Life was simply the stack of decayed flesh that enclosed her. From his immortal lips hung the bodies of all those who died struggle for him and all those who had tampered with self luxury. For that, she dammed him for all eternity; in every form he understood she dammed him. He had been her guiding angle and now it became evident to her. No prayer would pass her conditions lips, for this had been his movement she had fought and they had lost other than just a clash.

Monday, November 05, 2007


A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn means of transportation. In Latin they say biga is a two-horse chariot, and quadriga is a four-horse chariot. It was used for very old warfare throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages, and constant to be used for travel, processions and in games after it had been superseded militarily. Early forms may also have had four wheels, even though these are not usually referred to as chariots. The serious creation that allowed the construction of light, horse-drawn chariots for use in battle was the spoked wheel. In these times, most horses could not support the weight of a man in battle; the unique wild horse was a large pony in size. Chariots were efficient in war only on fairly flat, open terrain. As horses were slowly bred to be larger and stronger, chariots gave way to cavalry. The earliest spoke-wheeled chariots date to ca. 2000 BC and their usage peaked approximately 1300 BC (see Battle of Kadesh). Chariot races sustained to be popular in Constantinople until the 6th century. In modern warfare, the planned role of the chariot is played by the tank or the armored personnel carrier. In World War I, just before the opening of the first tanks, motorcycles with machine-guns mounted on a sidecar and armoured cars constitute mechanized versions of the chariot. It might be said that the Russian tachanka for a short time re-introduced horse-drawn chariots, armed with machine-guns but these were much more a light version of the horse artillery which had been a feature of European battlefields for well over a hundred years.

Monday, October 29, 2007


Wakeboard Boats have a device that creates a huge wake for a skier to jump the wakes from face to face doing aerial tricks. Wakeboard complete boats are Drive boats. This means they are an inboard boat among the engine place backwards in the nurture of the boat. Some wakeboard detailed boat models are direct drive boats where the engine is in the center of the boat. Most wakeboard boats will have some features that help to make large wakes. Ballast, lodge, and hull technology. Most new wakeboarding boats come usual with some sort of regular ballast. Generally, these ballast tanks are placed inside of the hull of the boat and can be crowded and empties by switches situated in the drivers area. The ballast weights the boat down, creating a larger wake when in proposition. The Wedge is a machine that helps shape the wake. It is a metal structure situated behind the propeller that helps the driver fine melody the wake for the athlete. Hull technology is the innovation and R&D that the manufacturers put into their boats to make sure the best stock wake possible. Many boarders use after market ballast and guide to further weight down their boats for very huge wakes or for sports such as wake surfing.

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

A Little Cloud

He wrote the story A Little Cloud the story was print in 1905. A Little Cloud takes position in Dublin. This is recognized to be a dirty town. Little Chandler is a thirty-two year old marital man with one son who is not fairly one year old in the story. He is called little Chandler because of his look. He is somewhat under height, which is he, under one hundred and eighty-five centimeters. He has little white hands, babyish teeth and excellent nail care. Little Chandler has a delicate frame, silken hair and body hair; he has a quiet voice and superior manners.
Little Chandler is a sober man, meaning he is sparing in consumption and drinking. Little Chandler blushes very simply at more or less anything. He appears to have a good-looking life; he moving parts at the Kings Inn at a desk. He likes to read poetry and sometime would like to write it. Little Chandler has never been in a great deal of problem before in his life. He frequently thinks about his friend Ignatius Gallagher while at job, and how he has become a shining man in the Press. Little Chandler regularly thinks of his life, which makes him sad.

Monday, October 15, 2007

A beautiful Morning

You are session on top of the world, you look something like and all you can see are blue skies and sunshine. Those days do not come around all the time but when they do you take a step back and understand how enormous life is. I myself have a silence a few days similar to that and let me tell you I wished they never ended. And though the 24 hour time duration we refer to as a day maybe over it is a mere drop in the ocean of time we have in our lives and enjoying every minute is the only manner to live. There will always be good days and bad days, but the extraordinary days are those who live in disgrace through the stories of the old and have been.
About a year ago I was living in Orlando, Florida at the age of 17 years old, and it was summer. I had wake up to a good-looking cloud free Floridian day. I was bored and had not anything to do, no job, no responsibilities, nothing. It started to be a chill day till around noontime; so my friend Chris Lane, or C-Lane and I determined to go swimming.

Sunday, October 07, 2007


Advertising is a traditional Society. This paper shows the difficulties of promoting products in conventional societies such as traditional Muslim countries. Advertising is a major marketing implement for organizations to sell their products and services. The paper argues that in conservative societies however, it is virtually impossible to convey message in a smart way. This paper discusses the Saudi society and the approaches to advertising as compared to the United States. It discusses advertising mediums such as television commercial and the internet and shows how messages put across to the consumer differ between the two countries, based on cultural demands.
Extensive hard work is made to keep the society segregated so that no mingling or socializing for the two is possible. As a result, educational institutes are segregated and the place of work does not employ women much. There are harsh laws regarding women covering themselves, traveling with a male relation and driving. In addition, media, along with the Internet, is heavily concealed for any trace of irreligious content.

Thursday, September 27, 2007

Charleston earthquake – Pre-20th Century

The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the biggest quake to hit the Southeastern United States. It occurred at 9:50 p.m. on August 31, 1886. The earthquake caused severe damage in Charleston, South Carolina, damaging 2,000 buildings and causing $6 million value in damages, while in the entire city the buildings were only valued at approximately $24 million. Between 60 and 110 lives were lost.

Major damage occurred as far away as Tybee Island, Georgia (over 60 miles away) and structural injure was reported some hundred miles from Charleston (counting central Alabama, central Ohio, eastern Kentucky, southern Virginia, and western West Virginia). It was felt as far away as Boston to the North, Chicago and Milwaukee to the Northwest, as far West as New Orleans, as far South as Cuba, and also as far East as Bermuda

Monday, September 03, 2007


A blazer or boating jacket is a type of jacket, generally double-breasted even though single-breasted blazers have become more general in current times. A blazer looks like a suit jacket except for that it generally has patch pockets with no flaps, and metal shank buttons. A blazer's cloth is usually of a resilient nature as it is used in schools and was used for sport. They frequently form part of the uniform dress of bodies, such as airlines, schools, yacht or rowing clubs, and private security organizations. As sporting dress has become more modified to the activity, the blazer has become limited to clubs' social meetings. Generally, blazers are navy blue, but nearly every color and mixture of colors has been used, particularly by schools and sporting organizations.

Monday, August 27, 2007

Computer networking

Computer networking is the engineering discipline anxious with communication between computer systems. Such communicate systems comprise a computer network and these networks generally involve at least two devices able of being networked with at least one usually being a computer. The devices can be separated by a small number of meters or nearly unlimited distances. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, and sometimes of computer science, information technology and computer engineering. Computer networks rely a lot upon the abstract and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines.

A computer network is any set of computers connected to each other. Examples of networks are the Internet, a wide area network that is the largest to always exist, or a little home local area network (LAN) with two computers connected with standard networking cables connecting to a network interface card in each computer.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Analog clocks

The 24 hour band moves across the static map, keeping pace with the apparent movement of the sun above ground, and a pointer fixed on London points to the current time Analog clocks usually point to time using angles. The most common clock face uses a fixed numbered dial or dials and moving hand or hands. It usually has a circular scale of 12 hours, which can also serve as a scale of 60 minutes, and often also as a scale of 60 seconds – though many other styles and designs have been used throughout the years, including dials divided into 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours. Of these substitute versions, the 24 hour analog dial is the main type in use today. The 10-hour clock was briefly popular during the French Revolution, when the metric system was applied to time measurement, and an Italian 6 hour clock was developed in the 18th century, presumably to save power.

Monday, August 13, 2007

Chef's uniform

The conventional chef's uniform, including toque (traditional hat), white double breasted jacket, and checked pants are immediately recognized by most members of the Western world, especially in this day of television's celebrity chefs. The double breasted jacket can be inverted to conceal stains. Its thick cotton cloth protects from the heat of stove and oven and protects from splattering of steaming liquids. An apron is an obviously useful piece of utensils used to guard the rest of the wearer's garments from food splatters and stains.

The toque (chef's hat) dates back to the 16th century when hats were regular in many businesses. Different heights of hats point out rank within a kitchen. Some modern chefs have put their own diverse whirl on the traditional uniform. But the traditional, practical, clothing of the chef still remainders a standard in the food industry.

Tuesday, August 07, 2007

Electric toothbrush

The initial electric toothbrush was developed in 1939 in Scotland, but did not appear on the open market until the 1960s, when it was marketed as the Broxodent in the United States by Squibb. In 1961, General Electric introduced a rechargeable cordless toothbrush that moved up and down when activated. In 1987, the first rotary action toothbrush for home use, the Interlake, appeared in shops for the general public. There are currently many different varieties of model that use this mechanism. Research shows that they tend to be somewhat more effective at removing commemorative inscription and preventing gingival bleeding than manual toothbrushes and vibrating toothbrushes.

Tuesday, July 31, 2007


Supra-aural headphones are much like circumaural; only the pads go away on top of the ear, making them lighter and smaller. They may have circled pads, much like circumaural headphones, only smaller and go on top of the ear. They may also have basic, "open" pads. They were commonly bundled with personal stereos during the 1980s.

Sunday, July 22, 2007

Pollutants in water

Pollutants in water consist of a large spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical chemistry or sensory changes. A lot of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can apparently produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water’s physical chemistry includes acidity, conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is the fertilization of surface water by nutrients that were previously scarce. Even many of the municipal water supplies in developed countries can present health risks.

Friday, July 13, 2007


Salad is a light meal — or, as part of a larger meal, much more of an taster — consisting of mixed vegetables (usually including at least one leaf vegetable) or fruit, frequently with a dressing or sauce, occasionally nuts and sometimes with the addition of meat, fish or cheese. It is generally seen as a healthy dish, although not always low in calories, salt, sugar, or fat because of the dressing that is often added. The word "salad" comes from the French salad of the same meaning, which in twist is from the Latin salata, "salty", from sal, "salt".

Sunday, July 08, 2007

A Personal portal

A Personal portal is a site on the World Wide Web that characteristically provides personalized capabilities to its visitors, given that a pathway to other content. It is intended to use distributed applications, different numbers and types of middleware and hardware to provide services from a number of different sources. In addition, business portals are intended to share collaboration in workplaces. A further business-driven requirement of portals is that the content be able to work on multiple platforms such as personal computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and cell phones.

Sunday, July 01, 2007


Topiary is the art of creating sculptures using clipped trees, shrubs and sub-shrubs. The word derives from the Latin word for an ornamental landscape gardener, topiarius, creator of topia or "places", a Greek word that Romans applied also to fictive indoor landscapes executed in fresco. No doubt the use of a Greek word betokens the art's origins in the Hellenistic world that was influenced by Persia, for neither Classical Greece nor Republican Rome developed any complicated tradition of artful pleasure grounds.
The plants used in topiary are evergreen, have small leaves or needles, produce dense foliage, and have compact and/or columnar growth habits. Common plants used in topiary comprise cultivars of box, arborvitae, bay laurel, holly, myrtle, yew, and privet. Shaped wire cages are sometimes working in modern topiary to guide untutored shears, but traditional topiary depends on patience and a steady hand; small-leaved ivy can be used to cover a cage and provide the look of topiary in a few months.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007

RISC (reduced instruction set computer)

In the mid-1980s to early-1990s, a crop of new high-performance RISC microprocessors appeared, which were initially used in special purpose machines and UNIX workstations, but have since become almost universal in all roles except the Intel-standard desktop.

The first commercial design was released by MIPS Technologies, the 32-bit R2000. The R3000 made the design truly practical, and the R4000 introduced the world's first 64-bit design. Opposing projects would result in the IBM POWER and Sun SPARC systems, respectively. Soon every major vendor was releasing a RISC design, including the AT&T CRISP, AMD 29000, Intel i860 and Intel i960, Motorola 88000, DEC Alpha and the HP-PA.

Market forces have "weeded out" many of these designs, leaving the PowerPC as the main desktop RISC processor, with the SPARC being used in Sun designs only. MIPS continue to supply some SGI systems, but are first and foremost used as an embedded design, notably in Cisco routers. The rest of the original crop of designs have either disappeared, or are about to. Other companies have attacked niches in the market, notably ARM, originally intended for home computer use but since focused at the embedded processor market. Today RISC designs based on the MIPS, ARM or PowerPC core are the vast majority of computing devices.

Saturday, June 23, 2007


A canoe is a small narrow boat, classically human-powered, but also commonly sailed. Canoes usually are pointed at both bow and stern and are normally open on top, but can be covered.
In its human-powered form, the canoe is propelled by the use of paddles, with the number of paddlers depending on the size of the canoe. Paddlers face in the direction of travel, either seated on supports in the hull, or kneeling directly upon the hull. In this way paddling a canoe can be contrasted with rowing, where the rowers face away from the direction of travel. Paddles may be single-bladed or double-bladed.
Sailing canoes are propelled by means of a variety of sailing rigs. Common classes of modern sailing canoes include the 5m² and the International 10m² Sailing canoes. The latter is otherwise known as the International Canoe, and is one of the fastest and oldest competitively sailed boat classes in the western world. The log canoe of the Chesapeake Bay is in the modern sense not a canoe at all, though it evolved through the enlargement of dugout canoes.

Sunday, June 17, 2007


A sandwich is a food item typically consisting of two pieces of leavened bread between which are laid one or more layers of meat, vegetable, cheese or jam, together with optional or traditionally provided condiments, sauces, and other accompaniments. The bread can be used as is, lightly buttered, or covered in a flavored oil to enhance flavor and texture. It is named after the 4th Earl of Sandwich.
Sandwiches are commonly carried to work or school in lunchboxes or brown paper bags to be eaten as the midday meal, taken on picnics, hiking trips, or other outings. In some parts of the world, they are also served in many restaurants as entrées, and are sometimes eaten at home, either as a quick meal or as part of a larger meal. When eaten as part of a full meal sandwiches are traditionally accompanied with such side dishes as a serving of soup (soup-and-sandwich), a salad (salad-and-sandwich), french fries/chips, potato chips/crisps and a pickle or coleslaw. A new trend appearing is making sandwiches into wraps, in which a tortilla is substituted for the bread. According to a recent court ruling in the United States, a sandwich must have two slices of bread and not one tortilla .

Monday, June 11, 2007

Urban archaeology

Urban archaeology is a sub regulation of archaeology specializing in the material past of towns and cities where long-term human habitation has often gone a rich record of the past. Humans generate waste. Large concentrations of humans manufacture large concentrations of waste. Feces, kitchen waste, broken objects etc. all need to be liable of. Small numbers of people can dispose of their waste locally without heartening vermin or endangering their health. Once people began to exist together in large numbers, around five thousand years ago, such methods began to become impractical. Material would be brought into these new settlements but would rarely be taken out again.

Wednesday, June 06, 2007

Krill fishery

Krill fishery is the commercial fishery of krill, small shrimp-like marine animals that live in the oceans world-wide. Estimates for how much krill there is vary wildly, depending on the methodology used. They range from 125–725 million tonnes of biomass globally. The total global harvest of krill from all fisheries amounts to 150 – 200,000 tonnes annually, mainly Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and North Pacific krill (E. pacifica).
Krill are rich in protein (40% or more of dry weight) and lipids (about 20% in E. superba). Their exoskeleton amounts to some 2% of dry weight of chitin. They also contain traces of a wide array of hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, carbohydrases, nucleases and phospholipases, which are intense in the digestive gland in the cephalothorax of the krill.
Most krill is used as aquaculture feed and fish bait; other uses comprise livestock or pet foods. Only a small percentage is prepared for human consumption. Their enzymes are interesting for medical applications, an expanding sector since the early 1990s.

Sunday, May 27, 2007

Historical usage of Basket

Wood, bamboo, wheat, other grasses, osiers or wicker are often used to make baskets, but they are also made today from plastic. The first baskets were natural fiber by gatherers to collect fruits, grains, nuts and other edible plant materials, as well as for holding fish by early fishing peoples. A creel is a basket made particularly to hold fish. The plant life available in a region affects the choice of material, which in turn influences the weaving technique. Rattan and other members of the Arecaceae or palm tree family, the thin grasses of temperate regions and broad-leaved tropical bromeliads each require a different method of twisting and braiding to be made into an effective basket. Although baskets were usually created to serve men in bed rather than an artistic purpose, the practice of basket making has evolved into an art.

Saturday, May 19, 2007

Universal Serial Bus

Universal Serial Bus is a serial bus standard to interface devices. A major part in the legacy-free PC, USB was designed to allow peripherals to be connected using a single standardized interface socket, to improve plug-and-play capabilities by allowing devices to be connected and disconnected without rebooting the computer, and to allow specific classes of hardware to be used without requiring individual device drivers to be installed.

USB is intended to help retire all legacy serial and parallel ports. USB can connect computer peripherals such as mouse devices, keyboards, PDAs, game pads and joysticks, scanners, digital cameras and printers. For many devices such as scanners and digital cameras, USB has become the standard connection method. USB is also used extensively to connect non-networked printers; USB simplifies connecting several printers to one computer. USB was originally designed for personal computers, but it has become commonplace on other devices such as PDAs and video game consoles. In 2004, there were about 1 billion USB devices in the world.

The design of USB is standardized by the USB Implementers Forum, an industry standards body incorporating leading companies from the computer and electronics industries. Notable members have included Apple Computer, Hewlett-Packard, NEC, Microsoft, Intel, and Agere.

Monday, May 14, 2007


Biological technology is technology based on biology, particularly when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. Biotechnology means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to construct or change products or processes for specific use.

Biotechnology combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology, which are in turn allied to practical disciplines like chemical engineering, information technology, and robotics.Biotechnology can also be defined as the exploitation of organisms to do practical things and to provide useful products.

One characteristic of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products). For another example, naturally present bacteria are utilized by the mining industry in bioleaching. Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites infected by industrial activities (bioremediation), and produce biological weapons.

Wednesday, May 09, 2007


A broad metal chain made of torus-shaped links. A metal chain with diamond fashioned link pins. Roller chains, a chain is a sequence of connected links, usually made of metal.
Chains are typically made in one of two styles, according to their intended use: Those designed for lifting, such as when used with a hoist, or for securing, such as with a bicycle lock, have links that are torus shaped, which makes the chain flexible in two dimensions. Those designed for transferring power in machines have links designed to mesh with the teeth of the gears of the machine, and are flexible in only one dimension. They are known as Roller chains. Chains can also be ornamental as jeweler.

Uses for chain
Exact uses for chain include: Bicycle chain, chain that transfers power from the wheel to the
drive-wheel of a bicycle thus propelling it Chain drive, the main feature which differentiated the safety bicycle Chain gun, type of machine gun that utilizes a chain, driven by an external power source, to actuate the mechanism rather than using recoil Chain pumps, type of water pump where an endless chain has positioned on it circular discs Chain-linked Lewis, lifting device made from two curved steel legs Chainsaw, portable mechanical, motorized saw Curb chain, used on curb bits when riding a horse Keychain, a small chain that connects a small item to a key ring Lead shank, used on difficult horses that are misbehaving O-ring chain,

a specialized type of roller chain Roller chain, the type of chain most commonly used for transmission of mechanical power on bicycles, motorcycles, and in industrial and agricultural .machinery Snow chains, used to improve traction in snow Timing chain, used to regulate the valve and ignition timing on an internal combustion engine Ball and chain, phrase that can refer to either the actual restraint device that was used to slow down prisoners, or a derogatory
description of a person's significant other Bicycle lock, lockable chain.

Friday, April 27, 2007


In economic business is the social science of managing people to systematize and maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular imaginative and productive goals, usually to make profit. The etymology of "business" refers to the state of being busy, in the circumstance of the individual as well as the community or society. In other words, to be busy is to be doing commercially viable and profitable work.

The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the general usage (above), the particular usage to refer to a particular company or corporation, and the comprehensive usage to refer to a particular market sector, such as "the record business," "the computer business," or "the business community" -- the community of suppliers of goods and services.

The singular "business" can be a legally-recognized entity within an economically free society, wherein individuals systematize based on expertise and skill bring about social and technological expansion.

However, the exact definition of business is disputable as is business philosophy; for example, most Marxist use "means of production" as a rough synonym for "business." Socialist advocates government, public, or worker ownership of most sizable businesses.

Tuesday, April 24, 2007

Player Pianos

100 Later developments of the reproducing piano contain the use of magnetic tape rather than piano rolls to record and play back the music, and, in the case of one device made by Bösendorfer, computer assisted playback. Almost all modern player pianos use MIDI to interface with computer equipment. Live presentation or computer generated music can be recorded in MIDI file format for accurate reproduction later on such instruments.

At present, in 2005, several player piano conversion kits are available, allowing the owners of normal pianos to convert them into computer controlled instruments. The conversion process usually involves cutting open the bottom of the piano to install mechanical parts under the keyboard. Most modern player pianos come with an electronic device that can record and playback MIDI files on floppy disks and/or CD ROMs, and a MIDI interface that enables computers to drive the piano directly for more advanced operations.

Another company, QRS Inc. of the USA, make the most complicated type of reproducing piano system, called Pianomation, which does not have the restrictions of the other manufacturers products. It can play 80 notes at a time, plus fully orchestrated backing with vocals from original artists from the internal hi-fi system built in. QRS also have the largest software catalogue of 7000 titles.

Wednesday, April 18, 2007

Magnetic recording

Magnetic recording was established in principle as early as 1898 by Valdemar Poulsen in his telegraphone. Magnetic wire recording, and its successor, magnetic tape recording, involve the use of a magnetizable medium which moves with a constant speed past a recording head. An electrical signal, which is analogous to the sound that is to be recorded, is fed to the recording head, inducing a pattern of magnetization like to the signal. A playback head can then pick up the changes in magnetic field from the tape and convert it into an electrical signal.

Monday, April 09, 2007

Willamette Valley

100 The Willamette Valley is the region in northwest Oregon in the United States that environment the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its appearance from mountains near Eugene to its confluence with the Columbia River. One of the most creative agricultural areas of the world, the valley was the destination of choice for the emigrants on the Oregon Trail in the 1840s. It has formed the cultural and political heart of Oregon since the days of the Oregon Territory, and is home to nearly 70% of Oregon's population.
The valley may be insecurely defined as the watershed of the Willamette, bounded on the west by the Coast Ranges, on the east by the Cascade Range. It is bounded on the south by the Calapooya Mountains, which separate the headwaters of the Willamette from the Umpqua River valley. Because of the differing cultural and political interests, the Portland metropolitan area, as well as the Tualatin River valley, is often disincluded in the local use of the term. Cities for all time considered part of the Willamette Valley are Eugene, Corvallis, Albany, and Salem.

The agricultural richness of the valley is considered to be in no small measure a result of the Missoula Floods, which inundated the valley just about forty times between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. The floods were caused by the intervallic rupturing of the ice dam of Glacial Lake Missoula, the waters of which swept down the Columbia and flooded the Willamette Valley as far south as Eugene. The floodwaters carried rich volcanic and glacial soil from Eastern Washington, which was deposited across the valley floor when the waters subsided.
The main agricultural products of the valley include many varieties of berries and vegetables. The valley also produces mainly of the grass seed, Christmas trees and hazelnuts sold in North America. But it is greenhouse and nursery stock that have become the biggest agricultural commodity in the valley.
In current decades, the valley has also become a major wine producer, with multiple American Viticultural Areas of its own. With a cooler climate than California, the gently rolling hills surrounding the Willamette are home to some of the best pinot noir in the New World, as well as a high-quality pinot gris.

Monday, April 02, 2007

Sarus Crane

The Sarus Crane is a occupant propagation bird in northern India, Nepal, Southeast Asia and Queensland, Australia. It used to be found on accasion in pakistan, but has not been found silence the late 1980's. It is the world's tallest flying bird.

This is a very huge crane, 156cm in length, which is found in freshwater marshes and plains. It nests on the ground laying two to three eggs in a bulky nest. Unlike many cranes that make long migrations the sarus crane does not, meaning it cans expent the energy to raise both chicks. Both the male and female take turns sitting on the nest, and the male is the main guardian.

Adults are grey with a nude red head and white crown and a long dark pointed bill. In flight, the long neck is reserved straight, unlike herons, and the black wing tips can be seen; their long red or pink legs trail at the back them.

Sexes are similar, but young flora and fauna are duller and browner. The Indian, Southeast Asian and Australian species differ mainly in plumage shade. There are some slight size differences, but on average the male is larger then the female, and the birds are six feet tall with an eight foot wingspan.

These extroverted birds forage while walking in thin water or in fields, sometimes probing with their long bills. They are omnivorous, eating insects, marine plants and animals, crustaceans, seeds and berries, small vertebrates, and invertebrates.

Thursday, March 29, 2007

Super car

100 V8 Super cars is the main motor racing series in Australia. A V8 Super car is a five-liter V8 powered sedan, and races are held in all state of Australia as well as New Zealand and China.

The Australian Touring Car Championship evolve into V8 Touring Cars in the near the beginning 1990s. The company AVESCO was chartered to take the business rights of the ATCC from 1997, and imaginary the moniker "V8 Super car". The series is known now by the name "V8 Super car Championship Series", and the victor is awarded the "Australian Touring Car Championship".

Development of the regulations

To the dissatisfaction of a majority of fans who had watched a long history of Ford-Holden battles in Australian touring car categories since the 1960s, international touring car regulations seemed intended to prevent the Australian-built Holden Commodore and Ford Falcon in the early 90s. However, this was avoided with V8 only regulations being drafted, in partnership Ford and Holden, to display case their large Australian made cars.

Nissan who had conquered in the early 90s had their Turbo AWD Skyline GT-R controversially barred from the series, whilst BMW were allowable to carry on. Nissan vowed never to return to touring car racing in Australia again, and a short time later ceased Australian manufacture.

Finally the BMW team of Paul Morris left to head a separate new Australian Super Touring Championship, and in the mid 90s this ST series ran in rivalry to the V8 group. Super Touring with its many makes had the backing of the Australian Racing Drivers Club and sensationally two Bathurst 1000s were held each year in 1997 and 1998, one for V8s and the other for ST. The bulk of sponsorship, driver talent, and fan notice remained with the more popular V-8 group during this era leaving the ASTC to later collapse as an part-time group.

Sunday, March 25, 2007


Wood is the xylem tissue of woody plants, especially trees but also shrubs. Wood from the latter is only formed in small sizes, reducing the diversity of uses. Wood is a hygroscopic, cellular and anisotropic material. Dry wood is composed of fibers of cellulose (40%–50%) and hemicellulose (20%–30%) held together by lignin (25%–30%).
Artists can use wood to make delicate sculptures.Wood has been used by man for millenia for lots of purposes, being many things to many people. One of its main uses is as fuel. It might also be used as a material, for making artworks, boats, buildings, furniture, ships, tools, weapons, etc. Wood has been an important construction material since humans began building shelters, and remains in plentiful use today. Construction wood is normally known as timber in International English, and lumber in American English. Wood can be broken down and be made into chipboard, engineered wood, hardboard, medium-density fibreboard, oriented strand board, paper or used to make other synthetic substances.

Tuesday, March 20, 2007


Sagebrush, or Big Sagebrush is the common name for Artemisia tridentata, a shrub or small tree from the composite family (Asteraceae). The name sagebrush is also used for several related members of the genus Artemisia, such as California Sagebrush It is a coarse, hardy silvery-grey bush with yellow flowers and grows in arid sections of the western United States. It is the main vegetation across vast areas of the Great Basin desert. Along rivers or in other relatively wet areas, sagebrush can grow as tall as 10 feet (3 meters).
Sagebrush has a strong pungent fragrance, particularly when wet, which is not unlike common sage. It is, however, dissimilar to common sage and has a bitter taste. It is thought that this odor serves to discourage browsing.
Sagebrush leaves are wedge-shaped, and are attached to the branch by the narrow end. The outer and wider end is usually divided into three lobes (although leaves with two or four lobes are not uncommon), hence the scientific name tridentata. The leaves are enclosed with fine silvery hairs, which are thought to keep the leaf cool and minimize water loss. Most of the leaves are carried year-round, as sagebrush tends to grow in areas where winter precipitation is greater than summer precipitation.
sagebrush leaves compare favorably to alfalfa for livestock nutrition value. However, they also have oils that are toxic to the symbiotic bacteria in the rumen of most ruminants. These oils have the most effect on cattle. Cattle that resort to sagebrush due to the lack of other fodder in the winter often freeze to death before starving, as they rely in large part on the heat of their digestive action for warmth. Ranchers call this condition "hollow belly". Sheep can stand moderate consumption of sagebrush leaves, especially the fresh spring buds. Pronghorn are the only large herbivore to browse sagebrush extensively. As pronghorn are the only remaining big herbivore that evolved along with sagebrush (deer are a more recent arrival from Asia), this is not surprising. There is speculation that some of the herbivores that went extinct in North America at the end of the Pleistocene such as the Ground Sloth or the American Camel were also capable of browsing sagebrush.
Sagebrush flowers in the late summer or early fall. The flowers are yellow and are carried in long, slender clusters.

Wednesday, March 14, 2007

Dal Lake

The Dal Lake is a famous lake in Srinagar, Kashmir, in Indian controlled Kashmir . The lake itself is linked to a number of other lakes of the Kashmir valley. It is well known for its shikaras or house boats. The lake spans 18 square Km, and is separated by causeways into four basins, called Gagribal, Lokut Dal, Bod Dal and Nagin. Lokut-dal and Bod-dal have an island each in the centre, known as Rup Lank (or Char Chinari) and Sona Lank respectively. Along most of the shore of the Lake is a boulevard, lined with Mughal-era gardens, parks, and hotels. During the winter season the lake sometimes freezes over.
Apart from the houseboats, the Lake and Waterways Dal Authority allows kayaking, canoeing, water surfing and licensed angling on the lake.
With the onset of militancy in the state, tourism dwindled in the 1990s; however after concerted efforts by the authorities, tourist inflow has somewhat improved. Wi-Fi access was implemented across the lake in November 2003, making it the first lake in the world to give wireless connectivity.Sewage, Water hyacinths and silt are the major problems affecting the lake.

Friday, March 09, 2007

Spider silk

Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. Spider silk is a remarkably physically powerful material. Its tensile strength is similar to that of high-grade steel — according to Nature , spider silk has a tensile strength of approximately 1.3 GPa, while one source lists a tensile strength for one form of steel at 1.65 GPa. However, spider silk is much less dense than steel; its ratio of tensile strength to density is perhaps 5 times better than steel — as strong as Aramid filaments, such as Twaron or Kevlar. In fact, a strand of spider silk long sufficient to circle the earth would weigh less than 16 ounces (less than 460 grams).
Spiders usually use their silk to make structures, either for protection for their offspring, or for predation on other creatures. They can also suspend themselves using their silk, in general for the same reasons.
The Trapdoor spider will burrow into the ground and weave a trapdoor-like structure with spindles around so it can tell when prey arrives and take it by surprise.
Many small spiders use silk threads for ballooning. They extrude several threads into the air and let themselves become carried away with upward winds. Although most rides will end a few meters later, it seems to be a ordinary way for spiders to invade islands. Many sailors have reported that spiders have been caught in their ship's sails, even when far from land.

Monday, March 05, 2007

Parachute operation and landing

Choosing when to deploy the parachute is a substance of safety. A parachute should be deployed high enough to give the parachutist time to switch a malfunction, should one occur. Two thousand five hundred feet is the practical minimum for advanced skydivers. In freefall, skydivers monitor their altimeters to decide when to break off from the configuration (if applicable) and when to open their parachutes. Many skydivers open higher to put into practice flying their parachute. On a "hop-and-pop," a jump in which the parachute is instantly deployed upon exiting the aircraft, it is not uncommon for a skydiver to be under canopy as high as 4000 or 5000 feet.
Flying the parachute has two basic challenges: to land where considered, often on a target; and to avoid injury. On a more advanced note, some skydivers enjoy performing aerobatic maneuvers with parachutes. An example of this would be the "Swoop", an extremely exhilarating, but dangerous skill which entails a fast speed approach towards the ground, and then levelling off a couple of feet above the ground to cover as much distance as possible (as much as 600 feet), in a fast horizontal swoop.
A modern parachute or canopy "wing" can glide large distances. Elliptical canopies go faster and farther, and some small, very loaded canopies glide faster than a man can run, which can make them very challenging to land. A highly skilled skydiver using a very small canopy can achieve over 60 mph horizontal speeds in landing.
A good landing will not have any uneasiness at all, and will land the skydiver within a few feet of his intended location. In competitions, champion accuracy skydivers regularly land less than two inches from the center of a target.
Nowadays, most of the skydiving connected injuries happen under a fully opened and functioning parachute, the most common reasons for these injuries are badly-executed, radical maneuvers near to the ground, like hook turns, or too-low or too-high landing flares.

Thursday, March 01, 2007

Giant panda

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ("black-and-white cat-foot") is a mammal classified in the bear family, Ursidae, native to central and southern China.It is easily known by its large, distinctive black patches around the eyes, ears and on its rotund body. Though technically a carnivore, the panda has a diet which is 98% bamboo. However, they may eat other foods such as honey, eggs, fish, and yams.
The Giant Panda is an endangered animal; an estimated 3,000 pandas live in the wildand some 221 were reported to live in captivity at the end of 2006 in China,with twenty pandas living outside of China. However, reports show that the numbers of wild panda are on the rise.The giant panda has long been a most wanted of the public, at least partly on account of the fact that the species has an appealing baby-like cuteness that makes it seem to resemble a living teddy bear. The fact that it is regularly depicted reclining peacefully eating bamboo, as opposed to hunting, also adds to its image of innocence. Though the giant panda is often assumed docile because of their cuteness, they have been known to attack humans, usually assumed to be out of irritation rather than predatory behavior.

Friday, February 23, 2007

Structural failure

Structural failure refers to loss of the load-carrying capacity of a component or member within the structure or of the structure itself. Structural failure is initiated when the material is stressed out to its strength limit, thus causing fracture or extreme deformations. The ultimate failure strength of the material, component or system is its maximum load-bearing capacity. When this limit is reached, damage to the material has been done, and its load-bearing capacity is reduced significantly and fastly. In a well-designed system, a localized failure should not cause instantly or even progressive collapse of the entire structure. Ultimate failure strength is one of the limit states that must be accounted for in civil engineering.

Monday, February 19, 2007

World maps and projections

Maps of the world or big areas are often either 'political' or 'physical'. The most important purpose of the political map is to explain territorial borders; the purpose of the physical is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use. Geological maps demonstrate not only the physical surface, but characteristics of the underlying rock, fault lines, and subsurface structures.
Maps that depict the surface of the Earth also use a projection, a way of translating the three-dimensional actual surface of the geoid to a two-dimensional picture. Perhaps the best-known world-map projection is the Mercator Projection, initially designed as a form of nautical chart.
Airplane pilots use aeronautical charts based on a Lambert conformal conic projection, in which a cone is laid over the division of the earth to be mapped. The cone intersects the sphere (the earth) at one or two parallels which are selected as standard lines. This allows the pilots to plan a great-circle route approximation on a flat, two-dimensional chart.

Wednesday, February 14, 2007

Reality, worldviews, and theories of reality

A common slang usage would have "reality" mean "perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes toward reality," as in "My reality is not your reality." This is often used just as a colloquialism indicating that the parties to a conversation agree, or should agree, not to quibble over deeply different conceptions of what is real. For example, in a spiritual discussion between friends, one might say (attempting humor), "You might disagree, but in my reality, everyone goes to heaven.” But occasionally — and mainly in the case of those who have been exposed to certain ideas from viewpoint, sociology, literary criticism, and other fields — it is thought that there simply and factually is no reality beyond the perceptions or beliefs we each have about reality. Such attitudes are summarized in the popular statement, "Perception is reality" or "Life is how you pick out reality" and they show anti-realism, that is, the view that there is no objective reality, whether acknowledged clearly or not.

Friday, February 09, 2007

The Real Miracle

As far as Miracles is concern, turning salty seawater in to sweet water is quite amazing. Regardless of the scientific clarification being doled out—surplus freshwater flowing from the Mahim River into the sea—the thousand mass to Mahim Creek near the beachfront in Mumbai will pretty see the ‘transubstantiation’ as the deed of the late Haji Maqdoom Baba, whose shrine is in the area. Mass hysteria, of course, is only a term to clarify the hordes of believers filling plastic bottles and drinking the water. But the real miracle would be if those glugging the ‘miraculous’ water manages to flee succumbing to serious gastric illness.
The water of Mahim Creek, sweetened or otherwise, is dirty and would scandalize not only the likes of Sunita Narain of the Centre for Science and Environment. Maharashtra Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh and officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai have already request to people not to drink the water. Industrial waste is not the finest ingredient for a miracle. But telling this to goggle-eyed people facing even more goggle-eyed TV cameras is as worthwhile as persuasive people that a Ganesh idol sipping milk is caused by suction and not godly lactose tolerance.
Fortunately, rumors of the sweetened water turning back to its original brackish form might stop a future surge. Now we only wait for the real miracle of no one complaining of sickness.

Saturday, January 13, 2007

Historical background of real estate

History of the wordThe word 'real' in the context of 'real estate' is not the opposite of 'unreal' but is in fact derived from the same source as the word 'royal'. An illustration of this is found today in the name of soccer team Real Madrid, meaning Royal Madrid.
Interpretations varyWhen the word 'real' was originally used in conjunction with the word 'property', it had the literal meaning under common law of royal property. Translated for application in the United Kingdom today, this term refers to Crown property (since the real property rights of the British Royal Family were amended under the Act of Settlement.) However, since Scotland is not a common law jurisdiction, its strict interpretation today differs from that of its application to England and Wales and other localities where common law does apply.
Within international jurisdictions, such as those states of the United States where common law is applicable (and not all states are common law states), the term refers to both the land owned by the federal government; land owned by the state; land owned by Indian tribes (where applicable), and the land owned by individuals and companies within that state. This is in contrast to all other property in such states which is then deemed to be 'personal' property.
Even when common law is the governing law, interpretations of real property under common law vary according to the jurisdiction.

DefinitionsAn important area of real immovable property are the definitions of estates in land. These are various interests that may limit the ownership rights one has over the land. The most common and perhaps most absolute type of estate is the fee simple which signifies that the owner has the right to dispose of the property as she/he sees fit. Other estates include the life estate where the owner's rights to the property cease at their death and fee tail estates where the property at the time of death passes to the heirs of the body (i.e. children, grandchildren, descendants) of the owner of the estate before he died.